How Siemens build Knowledge Assets

Knowledge adds value when it is current, useful, validated, acccessible, combines knowledge from many sources, and is packaged in a usable format. Here’s how Siemens does its knowledge synthesis and packaging. 

Siemens define a knowledge asset as being Validated Explicit knowledge on a value-adding Business processes.  I like this definition, as it implies that knowledge becomes an asset when it is validated, and when it helps the business.

However creation of such an asset requires a creation process involving the main knowledge holders from across the organisation. From this source, here’s a diagram showing how Siemens goes through the synthesis and validation process.

You can see from the diagram that a knowledge asset takes about 3 months to build, and involves three workshops involving the relevant subject matter experts, plus a final review workshop.

  • A strawman of the asset is prepared before the first workshop, at which the SMEs agree the content structure, the scope, and the key knowledge to be included (in the form of processes, products and roles).
  • At the second workshop, the SMEs start to populate the content with processes, work products, and best practices – namely, searching around for good Explicit examples. They may provide practice guides, methodology, business frameworks, example work products, case studies, templates, architectures and role descriptions.
  • At the third workshop, the tacit knowledge is added in the form of tips and guidance, checklists etc.

The validated knowledge assets are stored separately from non-validated project documents, therefore making a clear distinction between project information and cross-project knowledge.

Once the knowledge asset is in place it is continually improved through work experience.

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Collecting documents is not the same as managing knowledge, said King Solomon

The endless accumulation of reports is not necessarily a helpful thing in Knowledge Management.

Image from wikimedia commons

This issue was recognised thousands of years ago by one of the reputedly wisest men in history – King Solomon – revered as a prophet, King and Wise Man by all the Abrahamic traditions. As the wise man said, in the book of Ecclesiastes –

“Of making many books there is no end, and much study is a weariness of the flesh”.

I was reminded of this quote last month at a conference, where a knowledge manager asked me if I could help her with her issue. Her problem was that she was measured on one indicator – the number of reports in her repository – and she was struggling to get people to write anything. Partly people were too busy, partly it was an oral culture rather than a written culture, often they did not know what to write, they were unsure about writing in English, and they were shy of putting their thoughts on paper.
I advised her to put her collection on hold, to start to introduce conversations about knowledge through After Action Reviews and Communities of Practice, and to use those conversations both as a source of further content and as an indication of which knowledge was currently important to the organisation. But it also made me think, and conclude that;

Using the number of reports and articles in a knowledge base as a KPI is unhelpful and can be counter-productive.

I say this for the following reasons.

  • As King Solomon nearly said, of writing reports there is no end. You can write as many reports or articles as you want – it doesn’t mean they are good, or helpful, or add anything to the store of knowledge. Volume is not an indicator of quality. Must volume is just noise in the system.
  • If all you do is collect documents, then the old out-of-date knowledge is mixed in with newer more relevant knowledge, or with contradictory conclusions and advice, which may be very unhelpful. 
  • In knowledge management – volume of content is a bad thing. In their excellent book “Working knowledge”, Davenport and Prusak point out that “Volume may be the friend of data management, but it is the enemy of knowledge management; simply because humans have to sift through the volume to find the desired knowledge”.
  • This “sifting through the volume of reports” is what King Solomon referred to as “a weariness of the flesh”, and busy people looking for knowledge do not want to face a mammoth task. Here is a third KM guru quote for you – Dr Johnson, the 18th century man of letters, wrote that  “Mankind have a great aversion to intellectual labour; but even supposing knowledge to be easily attainable, more people would be content to be ignorant than would take even a little trouble to acquire it”. The more documents in your repository, the more intellectual labour it takes the seeker to find the knowledge, regardless of the quality of your search engine.
  • The aim of KM is not to collect, but to combine and synthesise. The C within the famous SECI model stands for “Combination”, not Collection. The purpose of collecting new knowledge is to combine it with old knowledge and other new knowledge, and to create a synthesis – to move understanding forward; to filter out the noise and improve the signal.

The ideal knowledge base, for any given topic, really only requires one primary document, and a restricted selection of supporting documents.

  • The primary document is the Wiki, representing the current state of knowledge or the current best practice, constantly updated as new knowledge becomes available;
  • The wiki then links out to secondary documents, community discussions, lessons etc which give more detail if needed, and which provide the evidence base for the knowledge in the wiki;
  • There may also be a small collection of exemplar documents – proposals to copy, formats to use, templates and go-bys.

The secondary documents and exemplars should be rigorously collated, and old material should be archived.

Don’t aim for volume – aim for helpfulness and synthesis. Otherwise you may just be perpetuating “the weariness of the flesh”

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KM as distillation

I heard a useful metaphor last week – Knowledge Management as distillation.

Image from wikimedia commons
Knowledge is involved in almost everything we do at work, and the work products we create contain the outworkings of that knowledge. However just collecting work products is not Knowledge Management, as that knowledge is scattered and diffused across so many documents.
Similarly connecting people is not enough, as the knowledge remains scattered across many heads.
When the knowledge is scattered like this, then every knowledge seeker must do the same task of sifting, sorting and distilling out the knowledge. With commonly-used knowledge, this is wasteful, and it is better if someone (a subject matter expert or a community of practice) does the distillation in advance.
Distillation of knowledge could include:
  • Looking through community discussions, and drawing out the conclusions
  • Reviewing multiple proposals and compiling the best and most successful bits of each
  • Searching a collection of Lessons and turning them into guidance or checklists
  • Comparing many version of templates and finding the best
  • Holding a knowledge exchange to compare multiple practices and co-create the best
Providing such a distilled knowledge product is far more useful than expecting people to search through multiple sources every time they need guidance.

View Original Source Here.

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